Evaluating Partially Drawn Links for Directed Graph Edges

Burch, Michael and Vehlow, Corinna and Konevtsova, Natalia and Weiskopf, Daniel (2012) Evaluating Partially Drawn Links for Directed Graph Edges. In: Graph Drawing 19th International Symposium, GD 2011, September 21-23, 2011, Eindhoven, The Netherlands , pp. 226-237 (Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25878-7_22).

Full text not available from this repository.

Abstract

We investigate the readability of node-link diagrams for directed graphs when using partially drawn links instead of showing each link explicitly in its full length. Providing the complete link information between related nodes in a graph can lead to visual clutter caused by many edge crossings. To reduce visual clutter, we draw only partial links. Then, the question arises if such diagrams are still readable, understandable, and interpretable. As a step toward answering this question, we conducted a controlled user experiment with 42 participants to uncover differences in accuracy and completion time for three different tasks: identifying the existence of a direct link, the existence of an indirect connection with one intermediate node, and the node with the largest number of outgoing edges. Furthermore, we compared tapered and traditional edge representations, three different graph sizes, and six different link lengths. In all configurations, the nodes of the graph were placed according to the force-directed layout by Fruchterman and Reingold. One result of this study is that the characteristics of completion times and error rates depend on the type of task. A general observation is that partially drawn links can lead to shorter task completion times, which occurs for nearly all graph sizes, tasks, and both tapered and traditional edge representations. In contrast, there is a tendency toward higher error rates for shorter links, which in fact is task-dependent.

Item Type:Conference Paper
Additional Information:10.1007/978-3-642-25878-7_22
Classifications:D Aesthetics > D.001 General
ID Code:1256

Repository Staff Only: item control page

References

Barabási, A.L., Albert, R.: Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science 286(5439), 509–512 (1999)

Becker, R.A., Eick, S.G., Wilks, A.R.: Visualizing network data. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 1(1), 16–28 (1995)

Di Battista, G., Eades, P., Tamassia, R., Tollis, I.G.: Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Visualization of Graphs. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1999)

Eades, P.: A heuristic for graph drawing. Congressus Numerantium 42, 149–160 (1984)

Fruchterman, T.M.J., Reingold, E.M.: Graph drawing by force-directed placement. Software: Practice and Experience 21(11), 1129–1164 (1991)

Ghoniem, M., Fekete, J.D., Castagliola, P.: A comparison of the readability of graphs using node-link and matrix-based representations. In: Proc. IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, pp. 17–24 (2004)

Holten, D., Isenberg, P., van Wijk, J.J., Fekete, J.D.: An extended evaluation of the readability of tapered, animated, and textured directed-edge representations in node-link graphs. In: Proc. IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium, pp. 195–202 (2011)

Holten, D., van Wijk, J.J.: A user study on visualizing directed edges in graphs. In: Proc. SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2299–2308 (2009)

Huang, W., Eades, P.: How people read graphs. In: Proc. Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information Visualisation, pp. 51–58 (2005)

Huang, W., Hong, S.-H., Eades, P.: Layout Effects on Sociogram Perception. In: Healy, P., Nikolov, N.S. (eds.) GD 2005. LNCS, vol. 3843, pp. 262–273. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)

Kamada, T., Kawai, S.: An algorithm for drawing general undirected graphs. Information Processing Letters 31(1), 7–15 (1989)

Koffka, K.: Principles of Gestalt Psychology. Harcourt, Brace (1935)

Lee, B., Plaisant, C., Parr, C.S., Fekete, J.-D., Henry, N.: Task taxonomy for graph visualization. In: Proc. AVI Workshop on BEyond time and errors: novel evaLuation methods for Information Visualization, BELIV 2006 (2006)

Purchase, H.C.: Which Aesthetic Has the Greatest Effect on Human Understanding? In: DiBattista, G. (ed.) GD 1997. LNCS, vol. 1353, pp. 248–261. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)

Purchase, H.C., Carrington, D., Allder, J.-A.: Empirical evaluation of aesthetics-based graph layout. Empirical Software Engineering 7(3), 233–255 (2002)

Purchase, H.C., Cohen, R.F., James, M.: Validating Graph Drawing Aesthetics. In: North, S.C. (ed.) GD 1996. LNCS, vol. 1190, pp. 435–446. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)

Rosenholtz, R., Li, Y., Mansfield, J., Jin, Z.: Feature congestion: a measure of display clutter. In: Proc. SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 761–770 (2005)

Rusu, A., Fabian, A.J., Jianu, R., Rusu, A.: Using the Gestalt principle of closure to alleviate the edge crossing problem in graph drawings. In: Proc. International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV 2011), pp. 488–493 (2011)

Ware, C., Purchase, H., Colpoys, L., McGill, M.: Cognitive measurements of graph aesthetics. Information Visualization 1(2), 103–110 (2002)