Graph Folding: Extending Detail and Context Viewing into a Tool for Subgraph Comparisons

Carpendale, M. Sheelagh T. and Cowperthwaite, David J. and Fracchia, F. David and Shermer, Thomas (1996) Graph Folding: Extending Detail and Context Viewing into a Tool for Subgraph Comparisons. In: Symposium on Graph Drawing, GD 1995, September 20-22, 1995, Passau, Germany , pp. 127-139 (Official URL:

Full text not available from this repository.


It is a difficult problem to display large, complex graphs in a manner which furthers comprehension. A useful approach is to expand selected sections (foci) of the graph revealing details of subgraphs. If this expansion os maintained within the context of the entire graph, information is provided about how subgraphs are embedded in the overall structure. Often it is also desirable to realign these foci in order to facilitate the visual comparison of subgraphs. We have introduced a distortion-based viewing tool, three-dimensional pliable surface (3DPS) [1], which allows for multiple arbitrarily-shaped foci on a surface that can be manipulated by the viewer to control the level of detail contained within each region. This paper extends 3DPS to include the repositioning of foci so as to bring together spatially separated regions for the purpose of comparison while retaining the effect of detail in context viewing. The significance of this approach is that it utilizes precognitive perceptual cues about the three-dimensional surface to make the distortions comprehensible, and allows the user to interactively control the location, shape, and extent of the distortion in very large graphs.

Item Type:Conference Paper
Additional Information:10.1007/BFb0021797
Classifications:M Methods > M.300 Dynamic / Incremental / Online
P Styles > P.060 3D
S Software and Systems > S.999 Others
ID Code:54

Repository Staff Only: item control page


M.S.T. Carpendale, D.J. Cowperthwaite, and F.D. Fracchia. 3-dimensional pliable surfaces: For effective presentation of visual information. In toappear: UIST: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, 1995.

B.D. Fisher and Z.W. Pylyshyn. The cognitive architecture of bimodal event perception: A commentary and addendum to Radeau. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 13(1):92-96, Feb. 1994.

G.W. Furnas. Generalized fisheye views. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI'86 Conference Proceedings, pages 16-23, 1986.

N. Goodman. Languages of Art; An Approach to a Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968.

M. Himsolt. GraphEd: A graphical platform for the implementation of graph algorithms. In Graph Drawing, DIMACS International Workshop, Proceedings, pages 182-193, 1994.

K. Kaugers, J. Reinfelds, and A. Brazma. A simple algorithm for drawing large graphs on small screens. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Graph Drawing, pages 278-282, 1995.

D.A. Kleffner and V.S. Ramachandran. On the perception of shape from shading. In Perception and Psychophysics, 52(1):18-36, 1992.

J. Lamping and R. Rao. Laying out and visualizing large trees using a hyperbolic space. In UIST: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pages 13-14, 1994.

J.D. Mackinlay, G.G. Robertson, and S. K. Card. The perspective wall: Detail and context smoothly integrated. In CHI'91 Conference Proceedings, pages 173-180. 1991.

D.W. Massaro. Speech perception by ear and eye: a paradigm for psychological inquiry. Hillsdale, N.J., Erlbaum Associates, 1987.

D.W. Massaro. Attention and perception: An information integration perspective. Special Issue: Action, attention and automaticity./(In Acta Psychologica), 60(2-3):211-243, Dec. 1985.

K. Misue and K. Sugiyama. Multi-viewpoint perspective display methods: Formulation and application to compound digraphs. In Human Aspects in Computing: design and Use of Interactive Systems and Information Management, pages 834-838. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991.

E.G. Noik. Layout-independent fisheye views of nested graphs. In Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, pages 336-341, 1993.

E.G. Noik. A space of presentation emphasis techniques for visualizing graphs. In Graphics Interface'94, pages 225-233, 1994.

V.S. Ramachandran. Perception of shape from shading. Nature, 331(14):163-166, 1988.

G. Robertson and J.D. Mackinlay. The document lens. In UIST: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pages 101-108, 1993.

M. Sarkar and M.H. Brown. Graphical fisheye views. Communication of the ACM, 37(12):73-84, 1994.

M. Sarkar, S. Snibbe, O.J. Tversky, and S.P. Reiss. Streching the rubber sheet: A metaphor for viewing large layouts on small screens. In UIST: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pages 81-91, 1993.

E. Tufte. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press, 1990.

C. Ware. The foundations of experimental semiotics: a theory of sensory and conventional representation. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 4:91-100, 1993.